Iran is still renowned as a multi-ethnic nation despite the dominance of Persian culture, and the Ler, Armenian, Azeri, Kurdish, Arab, Balochi, Turkish, and other ethnic groups each have their own unique literary and historical customs that extend back to many centuries. This was done as part of a process of modernization, westernization, and of creating and outlining a new Turkish cultural identity, rather than the previously established and depicted Ottoman identity. In Tabriz, for instance, many of the rugs are made for prayer and contain a centralized medallion of sorts. The great jurist and theologian al-Ghazali proposed a synthesis of Sufism and sharia that became a basis of a richer Islamic theology. The closest related languages are Kurdish and Pashto. In the north, where horticulture is tantamount, the carpets are woven to represent Persian gardens. Attar was one of the most ancient and highly revered poets of Persia. There are approximately 110 million native speakers of Persian around the world making it one of the world's most spoken languages. Cultural affairs were marked by characteristic pattern of language use: New Persian was the language of state affairs and literature; New Persian and Arabic the languages of scholarship; Arabic the language of adjudication; and Turkic the language of the military.. The short poems of the Rubaiyat illustrate the pleasures of life while illuminating the nuanced political and religious context in which they were created. Accordingly, the magazine's literary ventures, under the direction of the poet Tevfik Fikret, were geared towards creating a Western-style "high art" in Turkey. Ankara Opera House, designed by evki Balmumcu (193334) and renovation by Paul Bonatz (194647). Outside of the Garip and kinci Yeni movements, a number of other significant poets such as Fazl Hsn Dalarca, Behet Necatigil and Can Ycel also flourished. Quotation: " Titley, Norah M. 1983. The culture represents the customs and technologies that a character or county uses. They gave up Persian as the court language, using Turkish instead; a decision that shocked the highly Persianized Mughals in India. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Crossing the Bridge: The Sound of Istanbul, Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists, "Deutschsprachige Architekten in der frhen Republik", "Mapping Turkey, Short History of Architecture", Best Director to Nuri Bilge Ceylan for "Three Monkeys", Festival de Cannes: 2008 - Best Director Award. Safavids erected grand mosques and built elegant gardens, collected books (one Safavid ruler had a library of 3,000 volumes) and patronized whole academies.  Other important annual motorsports events which are held at the Istanbul Park racing circuit include the MotoGP Grand Prix of Turkey, the FIA World Touring Car Championship, the GP2 Series and the Le Mans Series. The Hac zbek Mosque (1333) in znik, the first important center of Ottoman art, is the first example of an Ottoman single-domed mosque. 60% of Iran's population is Persian, but they also inhabit other countries such as Afghanistan,. As the broad cultural region remained politically divided, the sharp antagonisms between empires stimulated appearance of variations of Turco-Persian culture. Due to the close relations between the Ottoman Empire and France, Ottoman architecture began to be influenced by the Baroque and Rococo styles that were popular in Europe. [ See:JIGAR Iran | Persian Dating(iOS ) Iran | Persian Dating(Android )], Everyone has one, but after the Arab invasion of Persia, many of its people felt lost. The state accepts all citizens as Turks. Turkic-Persian tradition was a variant of Islamic culture. A water canal (other name is Cetvel-i Sim) and a picnic area (Kathane) were established as recreational areas. Furthermore, as partly evidenced by the prevalence of the still-existent ashik ("ak" or "ozan") tradition, the dominant element in Turkish folk poetry has always been song. The main institutional means of establishing a consensus of the ulama on these dogmatic issues were the madrasas, formal Islamic schools that granted licensure to teach. Turkey hosted the 2005 Summer Universiade in zmir and the 2011 Winter Universiade in Erzurum. Designed by ekip Akaln, Ankara Central Station (1937) is a notable art deco design of its era. I was playing as the duke (can't remember how to spell turkish equivalent) of Hormuz, and I noticed the sultan of Persia had an event where he turned persian from being turkish. Political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state. The tradition of Ottoman prose was exclusively non-fictional in nature; as the fiction tradition was limited to narrative poetry. Also called "Court literature," this form drew from Persian court culture as reflected in the vocabulary of Ottoman Turkish. Even the second popular Persian calligraphy style i.e. Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 20.  The appearance of New Persian, ascendancy of Turks to power in place of the Persian Samanids, rise of the non-Arabic ulama in the cities, and development of ethnically and confessionally complex urban society marked an emergence of a new Turco-Persian Islamic culture. One favorite is Norooz, a celebration of the Iranian New Year taking place on the Spring Equinox. Other forms of art in Persian Culture are: Prior to the foundation of Islam in Iran, Persians are noted for the development of one of the oldest monotheistic religions, Zoroastrianism. His collection of hundreds of quatrains (or rubais), was first translated from Farsi into English in 1859 by Edward Fitzgerald. It is a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages which is a group of the Indo- European languages. , After the Muslim conquest of Persia, Middle Persian, the language of Sassanids, continued in wide use well into the second Islamic century (eighth century) as a medium of administration in the eastern lands of the Caliphate. These two dynasties together drew the center of the Islamic world eastward. Turkic ascendance to power in the Samanid court brought Turks as the main patrons of Persianate culture, and as they subjugated Western and Southern Asia, they brought along this culture. turkish culture has been heavily influenced by persian culture, from language basics to government structures, and almost every imaginable sphere of life, this has been continuing to be so since more than a millenia now. Helping to distinguish between. Persian poetry is some of the most beautiful poetry in the world and the Persians cultivated four unique types of poetry; the epic, the ghasideh a purpose poem, the masnavi a narrative poem, and the ghazal a lyrical poem. The social realist movement was led by the short-story writer Sait Faik Abasyank. 31, No. It has for a long time been a tradition that Noel Baba would bring gifts to children on New Year's Eve. In the Kara-Khanid Khanate formed an ethnically and dogmatically diverse society. Ottomans fused various culinary traditions of their realm with influences from Middle Eastern cuisines, along with traditional Turkic elements from Central Asia such as yogurt. It consists of the mythical and some historical past of 50 Persian Kings from the creation of the world until the Arab invasion of Iran in the 7th century. It is divided into three partsthe mythical, heroic, and historical ages. In a sense, Iranian Islam is a second advent of Islam itself, a new Islam sometimes referred to as Islam-i Ajam. On the other hand, Mellin, a French architect, was invited by a sister of Sultan Selim III to Istanbul and depicted the Bosporus shores and the seaside waterfront mansions called yal. The art of miniature painting in Persia flourished from the 13th through the 16th centuries, and continues to this day, with several contemporary artists producing notable Persian miniatures. The backbone of the Turkic elite was broken as their wealth in Delhi was confiscated by Nusrat Khan Jalesari, after which a new heterogeneous Indo-Muslim nobility emerged in the Delhi Sultanate. The first radical step away from this trend was taken by Nzm Hikmet, whoduring his time as a student in the Soviet Union from 1921 to 1924was exposed to the modernist poetry of Vladimir Mayakovsky and others, which inspired him to start writing verse in a less formal style. Explicitly opposing themselves to everything that had gone in poetry before, they sought instead to create a popular art, "to explore the people's tastes, to determine them, and to make them reign supreme over art". Starting from the 1950s, isolation from the rest of the world started to diminish, leading to Turkish architects being increasingly inspired by their counterparts in the rest of the world. It was managed by bureaucrats and ulama who used both Persian and Arabic, its literati participated in both the Arabic and Persian traditions of high culture of the wider Islamicate world. , These generals eventually had effective control over all Samanid affairs. Another successful Turkish player in the NBA is Hidayet Trkolu, who was given the NBA's Most Improved Player Award for the 20072008 season, on April 28, 2008. Her first collection of poems was published in 1935 and she received 3rd degree Medal of Art and Culture in 1936. Nusretiye Mosque, Ortaky Mosque, Sultan Mahmud's Tomb, Galata Lodge of the Mevlevi Dervishes, Dolmabahe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace, Sadullah Pasha Yal and the Kuleli Barracks are the important examples of this style, developed parallel with the Westernization process. Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians were numerous, and also several minority Islamic sects had considerable following. The Mughals dominated India from 1526 until the eighteenth century, when Muslim successor states and non-Muslim powers of Sikh, Maratha, and British replaced them. Turks and Iranians share a common cultural heritage, known as the Turko-Persian tradition, which was a prominent characteristic of the Ghaznavid (977-1186), Seljuk (1037-1194), Sultanate of Rum (1077-1307), Ottoman (1299-1923), Timurid (1370-1507), Kara Koyunlu (1374-1468), Ak Koyunlu (1378-1501), and Safavid (1501-1736) Empires. Stylistically, the early prose of the Republic of Turkey was essentially a continuation of the National Literature movement, with Realism and Naturalism predominating. The most popular sport in Turkey is football. Nezami is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature. Ulama grew in prominence as the Samanids gave special support to Sunnism, in contrast with their Shiite neighbors, the Buyids. The Ottoman Turks brought a form of Iranian civilization to the walls of Vienna. The culture of Turkey (Turkish: Trkiye Kltr) combines a heavily diverse and heterogeneous set of elements that have been derived from the various cultures of the Eastern European, Eastern Mediterranean, Caucasian, Middle East and Central Asian traditions.  Another major sport in which the Turks have been internationally successful is weightlifting; as Turkish weightlifters, both male and female, have broken numerous world records and won several European, World and Olympic championship titles. Nastaliq is the most popular styles among classical Persian calligraphy scripts. Istanbul Sapphire (200611) is the tallest building in Turkey and 4th in Europe. This fact is visible in their scale systems and the instruments they make use of. [clarification needed]. Even the learned authorities of Islam, the ulama, began using the Persian lingua franca in public, although they still used Arabic as a medium of scholarship. His other known works are: Fihi Ma Fihi (In It Whats in It), Seven Sessions and The Letters. The Seljuks subsequently gave rise to the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia, while taking their thoroughly Persianised identity with them, giving it an even more profound and noted history there.  These three films, along with the other important works of Ceylan such as Kasaba (1997) and Mays sknts (1999) have also won awards at the other major international film festivals; including the Angers European First Film Festival (1997 and 1999), Ankara Film Festival (2000), Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival (1999, 2002 and 2006), Bergamo Film Meeting (2001), Berlin Film Festival (1998), Brothers Manaki Film Festival (2003), Buenos Aires International Festival of Independent Cinema (2001), Cannes Film Festival (2003, 2004 and 2006), Chicago Film Festival (2003), Cinemanila Film Festival (2003), European Film Awards (2000), Istanbul Film Festival (1998, 2000, 2003 and 2007), Mexico City Film Festival (2004), Montpellier Mediterranean Film Festival (2003), San Sebastin Film Festival (2003), Singapore Film Festival (2001), Sofia Film Festival (2004), Tokyo Film Festival (1998) and the Trieste Film Festival (2004).. Their language, Istanbul Turkish, originates from the Turkic language family and they share cultural and historic backgrounds to such groups as the Ottoman Turks, Crimean Karaites, Kazahs, Uzbeks, and . His works have been translated into more than twenty languages. The Uyghur Khaganate that succeeded the Turkic Empire was even more closesly associated with Sogdian elements. Behzad is the most famous of Persian miniature painters. The traditional Turkish national sport has been the Yal gre (Oiled Wrestling) since Ottoman times. In this religion, there is one Lord Wisdom, known as Ahura Mazda. The Book of Dede Korkut and the Epic of Krolu have been the main elements of the Turkish epic tradition in Anatolia for several centuries. As Shahrokh Meskoob quoted, Identity is a reactive matter and attention to self becomes more meaningful in relation to others.. The major language in Iran, former Persia, is Farsi. The Edebiyyt- Cedde (New Literature) movement began with the founding in 1891 of the magazine Servet-i Fnn (Scientific Wealth), which was largely devoted to progress (both intellectual and scientific) along the Western model. Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular. Berlinale: Berlin Film Festival reaches climax with awards ceremony. February 21, 2010. Kara-Khanids established a dominance of ulama in the cities, and the network of recognized Islamic authorities became an alternative social instrument for the maintenance of public order. New York: Cambridge University Press, Letter from Gyk Khan to Pope Innocent IV, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Turco-Persian_tradition&oldid=1134155080, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2021, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 17 January 2023, at 07:22. Turkic political ascendancy in the Samanid period in the tenth and eleventh centuries resulted in the fall of Samanid ruling institution to its Turkic generals; and in a rise of Turkic pastoralists in the countryside. Samanids encouraged translation of religious works from Arabic into Persian. Turkish is a Turkic language belonging to the Altaic language family, whereas Persian is an Indo-Iranian language belonging to the Indo-European language family.  The Delhi Sultans modeled their life-styles after the Turkic and Persian upper classes, who now predominated in most of Western and Central Asia. The Ottoman system was a multi-ethnic state that enabled people within it not to mix with each other and thereby retain separate ethnic and religious identities within the empire (albeit with a dominant Turkish and Southern European ruling class). Authors such as Ahmed Him and Yahy Keml Beyatl (18841958) continued to write important formal verse whose language was, to a great extent, a continuation of the late Ottoman tradition. , The period from the eleventh to thirteenth century was a cultural blossom time in Western and Southern Asia. Rumi (Molana, Molavi) also known as Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi was a 13th century Persian poet and was one of the most passionate and profound poets in history. Ferdowsi, author of Shahnameh, took 35 years to write his epic poem about the heroes of Ancient Persia. Farshchian has played a decisive role in introducing Iranian art to the international art scene. These diverse peoples found refuge in the cities. But Khayyam is best known for his work as a poet. And Rumis Masnavi is considered one of the most beautiful Persian literary works, if not of all Islamic writings. Austin: University of Texas, 105. In a first step their background has been analysed. The religious authorities of these non-Muslim communities became their spokesmen, just as the ulama were for the Muslim community, they also began overseeing internal communal affairs. This suggests that a dish is a speciality of that area, or may refer to the specific technique or ingredients used in that area. The Shu'ubiyah Controversy and the Social History of Early Islamic Iran. interpreted as divine light, indicating the presence of God. The Rstem Pasha Mosque, Mihrimah Sultan Mosque, Ibrahim Pasha Mosque, and the ehzade Mosque, as well as the trbes (mausoleum) of Suleiman the Magnificent, Roxelana and Selim II are among Sinan's most renowned works. In a very different tradition, but evincing a similar strong political viewpoint, was the satirical short-story writer Aziz Nesin.  ), who may be the best-known of the pre-19th century aks; Dadalolu (1785?1868? Persians now had a choice, they could accept a new culture, including nationality, language (Arabic) and religion (Islam), or they could hold tight to the unique attributes making up their Persian identities. Persian tile decorating reached its zenith in the 18th and 19th centuries. Tiles are used in two different ways for art. Taken as a whole, Turkish cuisine is not homogenous. The culture of Turkey ( Turkish: Trkiye Kltr) combines a heavily diverse and heterogeneous set of elements that have been derived from the various cultures of the Eastern European, Eastern Mediterranean, Caucasian, Middle East and Central Asian traditions. Outside of the Garip and "Second New" movements also, a number of significant poets have flourished, such as Fazl Hsn Dalarca (19142008), who wrote poems dealing with fundamental concepts like life, death, God, time, and the cosmos; Behet Necatigil (19161979), whose somewhat allegorical poems explore the significance of middle-class daily life; Can Ycel (19261999), whoin addition to his own highly colloquial and varied poetrywas also a translator into Turkish of a variety of world literature; and smet zel (1944 ), whose early poetry was highly leftist but whose poetry since the 1970s has shown a strong mystical and even Islamist influence. persepolis - persian culture stock . A Persian miniature is a richly detailed miniature painting which depicts religious or mythological themes from the region of the Middle East now known as Iran. Dhimmis in the Muslim Court: Legal Autonomy and Religious Discrimination. By the nineteenth century, the European secular concepts of social obligation and authority, along with superior technology, shook many established institutions of Turco-Persia. First established under Seljuqs, these schools became means of uniting Sunni ulama which legitimized the rule of the Sultans. His other works are: Diwan, Asrar Nameh, Musibat Nameh, Elahi Nameh, Jawaher Nameh and Sharh ul Ghalb. "Persian Culture" - World's (Oldest & Richest) Cultures! Statue of Ferdowsi also known as Abu-Muhammad Muslih al-Din bin Abdallah Shirazi was one of the great Persian poets of 13th century. Most of Irans population speak Indo-Iranian but also some speak Semitic, and Turkic languages. It was this Persian Islam, rather than the original Arab Islam, that was brought to new areas and new peoples: to the Turks, first in Central Asia and then in the Middle East in the country which came to be called Turkey, and of course to India. The institutions stabilized Islamic society into a form that would persist, at least in Western Asia, until the twentieth century. Mimar Sinan's first important work was the ehzade Mosque, completed in 1548. Counties will have lowered popular opinion with their direct Liege if they belong to a different culture and especially heritage. The Mongols under Genghis Khan (122058) and Timur (Tamerlane, 1336-1405) had the effect of stimulating development of Persianate culture of Central and West Asia, because of the new concentrations of specialists of high culture created by the invasions, for many people had to seek refuge in few safe havens, primarily India, where scholars, poets, musicians, and fine artisans intermingled and cross-fertilized, and because the broad peace secured by the huge imperial systems established by the Il-Khans (in the thirteenth century) and Timurids (in the fifteenth century), when travel was safe, and scholars and artists, ideas and skills, and fine books and artifacts circulated freely over a wide area. Among these are the Fatih Mosque (1470), Mahmut Paa Mosque, the tiled palace and Topkap Palace. As the author of numerous ghazals expressing love, spirituality, and protest, he and his work continue to be important to Iranians, and many of his poems are used as proverbs or sayings. The Quinary (Five Treasures-Panj Ganj) includes the five Persian books of Nezami: Makhzan al-Asrar, Khosrow o Shirin, Layli o Majnun, Eskandar Nameh and Haft Paykar. The Black Sea region's cuisine (northern Turkey) is based on corn and anchovies. For example, a Turk may feel compelled to give their own possessions as gifts when someone compliments them. persian warriors in line - persian culture stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images . . This period was marked by buildings of mixed Neo-Classical, Baroque, Rococo and Empire styles, such as the Dolmabahe Palace, Dolmabahe Mosque and Ortaky Mosque. 429-444.  This was the fourth time that Ceylan received an award at Cannes, following the awards for the film Uzak (which was also nominated for the Golden Palm) at the festival of 2003 and 2004, and the film klimler (also nominated for the Golden Palm) at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival.  Turkish cuisine also influenced Greek, Armenian, Arabic, Persian, Balkan and Middle East cuisines and other neighbouring cuisines, as well as western European cuisines. Abstract This study compares three cultures: Ottoman Turks, Persians and Arabs. Hafez also known as Khajeh Shams-ud-Din Muhammad Hafe-e Shirazi was a 13th century Persian poet. . In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the Turco-Persian empires weakened by the Europeans' discovery of a sea route to India, and introduction of hand guns, which gave the horsemen of the pastoral societies greater fighting capability.  The imposition of European influences on Asia greatly affected political and economic affairs throughout the region where Persianate culture had once been patronized by Turkic rulers. The master architect of the classical period, Mimar Sinan, was born in 1492 in Kayseri and died in Istanbul in the year 1588. The Sunni peoples of eastern Mediterranean in Asia Minor, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, and Sunnis of Central Asia and India developed somewhat independently. Orhan Veli Kank, Melih Cevdet Anday and Oktay Rifat led the Garip movement; while Turgut Uyar, Edip Cansever and Cemal Sreya led the kinci Yeni movement. International Journal of Middle East Studies Vol. Despite the decline of the ak/ozan tradition in the 19th century, it experienced a significant revival in the 20th century thanks to such outstanding figures as Ak Veysel atrolu (18941973), Ak Mahzuni erif (19382002), Neet Erta (19382012), and many others. Unlike Persia they gradually shed some of their Persianate qualities. It is solely a religion.  The Ottomans developed distinctive styles of arts and letters. Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic and Persian cuisines. Persian weaving flourished in the second half of the 15th century during the Safavid Dynasty. Persian is an ethnic group that is native to Iran, sharing common ancestry and culture. During the reign of Ahmed III (17031730) and under the impetus of his grand vizier brahim Paa, a period of peace ensued. Turkey hosted the 2010 FIBA World Championship international basketball tournament and reached the final. The name of specialities sometimes includes the name of a city or a region (either in Turkey or outside). making 6 straight Euroleague Final Four appearances combined, along with winning the Euroleague title in 2017 and 2021 respectively. The Turkish community is often exceptionally generous, attending to those in need very quickly. At the beginning of the fourteenth century the Ottomans rose to predominance in Asia Minor, and developed an empire that subjugated most of the Arab Islamic world as well as south-eastern Europe.